viernes, 30 de abril de 2010

¿COMO INFLUYE EL AMBIENTE EN NUESTRA PERSONALIDAD?

La manera de como pensamos, actuamos, sentimos y adquirimos conocimientos y educación no es independiente del ambiente, ya que vivimos en sociedad y estamos en constante interacción con las personas y diversas variables que nos influyen en el diario vivir. Por lo tanto el ambiente puede determinar o forjar nuestra personalidad, si el padre de un niño esta acostumbrado todos sus problemas con violencia, no es de extrañar que el niño tenga cuando grande una personalidad violenta, ya que aprendió por observación.

En la teoría Cognitivo-Social de Bandura, mas conocida como la “Teoría del Aprendizaje Social”, menciona que el funcionamiento psicológico esta basado en la interacción reciproca del ambiente físico y social, el sistema cognitivo y afectivo y el sistema conductual. Además hace énfasis en los mecanismos cognitivos que nos permiten aprender de nosotros mismos, de los demás y del mundo, y regular así nuestra conducta. Es así como propone que tenemos cinco tipos de capacidades:

1.- SIMBOLIZACIÓN : Capacidad para representar simbólicamente el conocimiento.
2.- APRENDIZAJE VICARIO : Capacidad de aprender habilidades, conocimientos, e incluso tendencias afectivas a través de la observación y del Modelado.
3.- EXPECTATIVAS : Capacidad de anticipar contingencias (consecuencias).
4.- AUTORREGULACIÓN : Capacidad para alcanzar metas y evaluar nuestras acciones.
5.- AUTORREFLEXIÓN : Capacidad para pensar en uno mismo.

Según Bandura, las tres últimas capacidades forman un sistema cuyo funcionamiento es la esencia de la personalidad. Pero también tenemos que tener en cuenta que en el desarrollo del ser humano, en especial en la temprana edad (como lo muestra en el video), esta presente el Aprendizaje Vicario, el cual tiene directa relación con el ambiente.

Por lo tanto podemos definir Personalidad como el conjunto de cualidades psicofísicas y el modo de reaccionar ante el ambiente y que cada persona adopta diferenciándola de las demás, engloba toda la estructura psicológica del individuo y se manifiesta en su forma de pensar, de expresarse y relacionarse de sus acciones, actitudes y en su forma de ver la vida.

A modo de ejemplo dejo este video para tomar conciencia además.




Atentamente.

Arely Santibáñez Toledo
Tutor Ayudante
Psicología de la Personalidad

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